詩篇中的彌賽亞

彌賽亞這詞是指甚麼

「彌賽亞」這詞,是源自希伯來文מָשִׁיחַ ( Mashiah) 的音譯,希臘文把它翻譯作 Christos,中文直譯稱為基督。

彌賽亞和基督其實是相同的名詞,前者來自希伯來文,後者來自希臘文,它的意思是「受膏者」。舊約中有三種人物稱為受膏者:先知、君王和祭司。

公元前第四世紀初,猶太人北國亡於亞述、南國亡於巴比倫後,猶太整個民族一直在盼望、等候「特別的那位彌賽亞」的來臨,以拯救他們脫離外邦人的轄制,重現大衛王朝的聲勢。彌賽亞此時「拯救者」的意思。

因此彌賽亞的涵義共有:受膏的君王。其屬性為大衛子孫、公義之君、受苦的僕人、征服者、受膏者。由詩篇中的王室詩所表達的信息,受膏者在地上代替耶和華在全地施行公義治理,打敗耶和華一切仇敵,並且國度權柄將存到永遠。


詩篇中的彌賽亞(messianic prophecy)

詩篇有許與彌賽亞預言相關的經文,我們將它稱為彌賽亞詩。雖然彌賽亞詩和王室詩看起來很類似,事實上兩者是不完全一樣。「彌賽亞詩」對照新約的詮釋,是呼之欲出的人子耶穌、十架救贖的代罪者。而「王室詩」僅有一功能,即為尊崇君王而唱的詩。

 

Concerning the Messiah’s birth:

1. The Messiah will come from the lineage of David (Psalm 89:3–429–36132:11–17Matthew 1:1).
2. The Messiah will come for all people (Psalm 18:49Ephesians 3:4–6).
3. The Messiah will know His Father from childhood (Psalm 22:9Luke 2:40).
4. The Messiah will be called by God while still in the womb (Psalm 22:10Luke 1:30–33).

Concerning the Messiah’s nature and name:

5. The Messiah will be called King of the Jews (Psalm 2:6John 12:12–1318:32).
6. The Messiah will be the Son of God (Psalm 2:7Luke 1:31–35Matthew 3:16–17Hebrews 1:5–6).

7. The Messiah is God (Psalm 45:6–7bHebrews 1:8–9).
8. The Messiah will call God His Father (Psalm 89:26Matthew 11:27).
9. The Messiah will be God’s only “begotten” Son (Psalm 89:27Mark 16:6Colossians 1:18Revelation 1:5).
10. The Messiah will be eternal (Psalm 102:25–27aRevelation 1:8Hebrews 1:10–12).
11. The Messiah is the creator of all things (Psalm 102:25–27bJohn 1:3Ephesians 3:9Hebrews 1:10–12).
12. The Messiah will be Lord and King (Psalm 110:1aMatthew 22:41–45).
13. The Messiah will be a Priest after the order of Melchizedek (Psalm 110:4Hebrews 6:17–20).
14. The Messiah will be the “Stone” rejected by the builders (Psalm 118:22Matthew 21:42–43)
Concerning the Messiah’s ministry:15. Infants will give praise to the Messiah (Psalm 8:2Matthew 21:15–16).
16. The Messiah will reveal that the Hebrew Scriptures were written of Him (Psalm 40:6–8bLuke 24:44John 5:39–40).
17. The Messiah will do God’s (His Father’s) will (Psalm 40:7–8John 5:30).
18. The Messiah will not conceal His mission from believing people (Psalm 40:9–10Luke 4:16–21).
19. The Messiah will communicate a message of mercy (Psalm 45:255:12–14Luke 4:22).
20. The Messiah will be angered by unethical practices by the Jews in the temple (Psalm 69:9aJohn 2:13–17).
21. The Messiah will teach in parables (Psalm 78:2Matthew 13:34–35).
22. The Messiah will calm the stormy sea (Psalm 107:28–29Matthew 8:24–26).
23. The Messiah will act with righteousness (Psalm 45:6–7cJohn 5:30).
24. The Messiah will come in the name of the Lord (Psalm 118:26Matthew 21:9).

Concerning the Messiah’s betrayal and death:

25. Political/religious leaders will conspire against the Messiah (Psalm 2:1–3Matthew 26:3–4Mark 3:6).
26. The Messiah will feel forsaken by God at His crucifixion (Psalm 22:1bMark 15:34).
27. The Messiah will pray without ceasing before His death (Psalm 22:2Matthew 26:38–39).
28. The Messiah will be despised and rejected by His own (Psalm 22:6Luke 23:21–23).
29. The Messiah will be mocked (Psalm 22:7109:25Matthew 27:39).
30. Unbelievers will say to the Messiah, “He trusted in God, let Him now deliver Him” (Psalm 22:8Matthew 27:41–43).
31. The Messiah will be abandoned by His disciples (Psalm 22:1169:20Mark 14:50).
32. The Messiah will be encompassed by wicked beings (Psalm 22:12–13Colossians 2:15).
33. From the Messiah’s body will flow blood and water (Psalm 22:14aJohn 19:34).
34. The Messiah will be crucified (Psalm 22:14bMatthew 27:35).
35. The Messiah will thirst while dying (Psalm 22:1569:21John 19:28).
36. The Messiah will be observed by Gentiles at His crucifixion (Psalm 22:16aLuke 23:36).
37. The Messiah will be observed by Jews at His crucifixion (Psalm 22:16bMatthew 27:41–43).
38. The Messiah’s hands and feet will be pierced (Psalm 22:16cMatthew 27:38).
39. The Messiah’s garments will be parted among the soldiers through the casting of lots (Psalm 22:18John 19:23–24).
40. The Messiah will be accused by false witnesses (Psalm 27:1235:11109:2Matthew 26:59–61).
41. The Messiah will cry out to God, “Into thy hands I commend my spirit” (Psalm 31:5Luke 23:46).
42. There will be many attempts to kill the Messiah (Psalm 31:13Matthew 27:1).
43. The Messiah will have no bones broken (Psalm 34:20John 19:32–33).
44. The Messiah will be hated without cause (Psalm 35:19John 18:19–2315:24–25).
45. The Messiah will be silent as a lamb before His accusers (Psalm 38:13–14Matthew 26:62–63).
46. The Messiah will be God’s sacrificial lamb for redemption of all mankind (Psalm 40:6–8aHebrews 10:10–13).
47. The Messiah will be betrayed by one of His own disciples (Psalm 41:9Mark 14:17–18).
48. The Messiah will be hated and rejected without cause (Psalm 69:4Luke 23:13–22John 15:24–25).
49. The Messiah will be condemned for God’s sake (Psalm 69:79Matthew 26:65–67Romans 15:3).
50. The Messiah will be rejected by the Jews (Psalm 69:8aJohn 1:11).
51. The Messiah’s very own brothers will reject Him (Psalm 69:8bJohn 7:3–5).
52. The Messiah’s heart will be broken (Psalm 69:20aJohn 19:34).
53. The Messiah will be offered gall mingled with vinegar while dying (Psalm 69:21aMatthew 27:34).
54. The Messiah will offer up prayer for His enemies (Psalm 109:4Luke 23:34).
55. The Messiah’s betrayer will have a short life (Psalm 109:8aActs 1:16–18John 17:12).
56. The Messiah’s betrayer will be replaced by a more faithful man (Psalm 109:8bActs 1:20–26).

Concerning the Messiah’s resurrection and exaltation:

57. The Messiah will be resurrected (Psalm 16:8–10aMatthew 28:6Acts 2:25–32).
58. The Messiah’s body will not see corruption (natural decay) (Psalm 16:8–10bActs 13:35–37).
59. The Messiah will be glorified into the presence of God (Psalm 16:11Acts 2:25–33).
60. The Messiah will ask God for His inheritance (Psalm 2:8aJohn 17:4–24).
61. The Messiah will have complete authority over all things (Psalm 2:8b–98:6Matthew 28:18Hebrews 1:1–2).
62. The Messiah will destroy those who do not honor Him (Psalm 2:12John 3:36).
63. The Messiah will bring many people into the family of God (Psalm 22:22Hebrews 2:10–12Matthew 12:50John 20:14).
64. The Messiah’s enemies will stumble and fall (Psalm 27:2John 18:3–6).
65. The Messiah’s throne will be eternal (Psalm 45:6–7aLuke 1:31–33Hebrews 1:8–9).
66. The Messiah will ascend back into heaven (Psalm 68:18aLuke 24:51Ephesians 4:8).
67. The Messiah will give good gifts unto believing men (Psalm 68:18bMatthew 10:1Ephesians 4:7–11).
68. The Messiah will be exalted to the right hand of God (Psalm 80:17110:15Acts 5:31).


彌賽亞詩可以大致分成兩型,

第一型;論到彌賽亞的屬性與身份,提及他為君王及其統治:詩 2、18、20、21、45、61、 72、89、110、132、144;

第二型;另一類論到彌賽亞其人及其生平:詩8、16、22、35、40、41、55、69、102、109(註 1)。

(一)彌賽亞的屬性與身份

  1. 他為神的兒子

詩篇 2:7b 「耶和華曾對我說:你是我的兒子,我今日生你。」這句話在新約的使徒行傳 13:33、希伯來書 1:5、5:5 都有引用。

  1. 他為君王

詩篇 2:6「說:我已經立我的君在錫安─我的聖山上了。」耶穌的門徒彼得在為耶穌作見證時,大膽地向大祭司們說,「你們掛在木頭上殺害的耶穌,我們祖宗的上帝已經叫他復活。上帝且用右手將他高舉,叫他作君王,作救主。」(徒5:30-31)

詩篇 89:27「我也要立他為長子,為世上最高的君王。」在啟示錄裡,他被稱為「萬王之王、萬主之主」 ( 啟 19:16)。

  1. 他為祭司

詩篇 110:4「耶和華起了誓,決不後悔,說:你是照著麥基洗德的等次永遠為祭司。」這句話被新約希伯來書的作者所引用,並且用很長的篇幅來論證它是指耶穌為祭司(來 5:6、7:1-28)。祭司最主要的工作是為百姓獻祭贖罪,希伯來書論證耶穌長遠活著,替眾人祈求(來 7:25)。

  1. 他是主

詩篇 110:1「耶和華對我主說:你坐在我的右邊,等我使你仇敵作你的腳凳。」這是大衛說的話,在新約,耶穌、耶穌的門徒彼得、希伯來書的作者都曾經引用過(太 22:41-46、徒 2:34、來 1:13),表明耶穌是主。

  1. 他是上帝、永不改變

詩篇 45:6-7 「上帝啊,你的寶座是永永遠遠的;你的國權是正直的。你喜愛公義,恨惡罪惡;所以上帝─就是你的上帝─用喜樂油膏你,勝過膏你的同伴。

詩篇 102:27「惟有你永不改變;你的年數沒有窮盡。」

這兩段詩提到的是彌賽亞的神性,希伯來書的作者引用它們來論證耶穌的神性(來1:8-12)。

(二) 彌賽亞的為人與生平

  1. 他的心志

詩篇 40:8「我的上帝啊,我樂意照你的旨意行;你的律法在我心裡」希伯來書 10:5-7 引用這段論證:內心遵行上帝的律法比遵行外在獻祭的規條更重要。它也充份顯示耶穌的心志是樂意遵行上帝的旨意。

詩篇 69:9a「因我為你的殿心裏焦急,如同火燒。」當耶穌潔淨聖殿時,他的門徒想起這節描述耶穌心境的詩(約 2:17)。

  1. 他無故被恨惡

詩篇 69:4「無故恨我的,比我頭髮還多;無理與我為仇、要把我剪除的,甚為強盛。」耶穌曾經引用這句話描述他的處境(約 15:25)。

  1. 他被朋友出賣

詩篇 41:9「連我知己的朋友,我所倚靠、吃過我飯的也用腳踢我。」耶穌曾引用這句話來指出有門徒會出賣他(約13:18)。

  1. 他受審判

詩篇 35:11「凶惡的見證人起來,盤問我所不知道的事。」馬太福音記載,祭司長和全公會尋找假見證,控告耶穌,要治死他(太 26:59)。

  1. 他在十字架上受苦

a.他被譏誚

詩篇 22:8「他把自己交託耶和華,耶和華可以救他吧!耶和華既喜悅他,可以搭救他吧!」馬太福音 27:43 記載,耶穌在十字架上時,祭司長和文士這樣譏誚他:「他倚靠上帝,上帝若喜悅他,現在可以救他;因為他曾說:『我是上帝的兒子。』」

b.他被離棄

詩篇 118:22-23「匠人所棄的石頭已成了房角的頭塊石頭。這是耶和華所做的,在我們眼中看為希奇。」耶穌引用這節來描述他被祭司長和法利賽人棄絕(太 21:42)。

其實,耶穌除了被人離棄外,他也感受到上帝離棄他,他呼喊說:「我的上帝!我的上帝!為什麼離棄我?」 (太 27:46) 這正是詩篇 22:1 的話。有這樣刻骨銘心的感受,是因為他背負世人罪孽的緣故。

c.他的衣服被瓜分

詩篇 22:18「他們分我的外衣,為我的裏衣拈鬮。」馬太福音 27:35 記載兵丁「既將他釘在十字架上,就拈鬮分他的衣服。」

d.他的手腳被扎

詩篇 22:16b「他們扎了我的手,我的腳。」對照約翰福音 19: 37「他們要仰望自己所扎的人。」

e.他的骨頭不折斷

詩篇 34:20「又保全他一身的骨頭,連一根也不折斷。」約翰福音 19:36 說,「這些事成了,為要應驗經上的話說:『他的骨頭一根也不可折斷。』」

  1. 他復活

詩篇 16:10「因為你必不將我的靈魂撇在陰間,也不叫你的聖者見朽壞。」使徒行傳 2:25-36、13:34-37 詳細討論這段詩篇,認為它是指著耶穌復活說的。

  1. 他升天

詩篇 68:18「你已經升上高天,擄掠仇敵;你在人間,就是在悖逆的人間,受了供獻,叫耶和華上帝可以與他們同住。」以弗所 4:7-10 對這節經文有比較詳細的說明:「我們各人蒙恩,都是照基督所量給各人的恩賜。所以經上說:他升上高天的時候,擄掠了仇敵,將各樣的恩賜賞給人。(既說升上,豈不是先降在地下嗎?那降下的,就是遠升諸天之上要充滿萬有的。)」

第七課彌賽亞詩、智慧詩與歷史詩 作者梁望惠