♠ 《單純理性限度內的宗教》康德著( 第三講)—曾劭愷老師

《單純理性限度內的宗教》康德著

Suggested translation: Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason

(Werner Pluhar)


√ 纯粹理性宗教(pure rationalist reigion);不自然神論,也不是自然主義。

√ John Hare 的“同心圓”解釋:

外圈=纯粹理性宗教

內圈=啟示宗教(對康德而言,僅限基督教)

√ Stephen Palmquist:纯粹理性宗教不是從宗教的理性觀念產生的。歷史性的啟示乃是纯粹理性宗教的必要媒介,是纯粹理性宗教的外衣。

“[Pure religion] is not… derived from reason alone but is also based on the teachings of history and revelation, and considers only the harmony of pure practical reason with these” (Metaphysics of Morals, 1797)


 

《宗教》的核心立論

“morality… leads inescapably to religion, through which it expands to the idea of a powerful moral legislator, outside the human being, in whose will the final purpose (of the world’s creation) is that which at the same time can be, and ought to be, the final purpose of the human being.’

理論理性+實踐理性


Salvation from the plight of evil “‘the restoration… of the purity of the moral law as the supreme

basis of all our maxims” and the sufficiency of this law as incentive to determine the power of choice.


Humanity is evil in its natural propensity

1. the human heart is weak in”complying with adopted maxims;

2. human beings have the “propensity to mix immoral incentives with the moral”;

3. human beings are “wicked” in the “propensity to adopt evil maxims”

→this propensity not coercive; human choice is free, thus humanity is held guilty for sin

→ this evil is “radical”; cannot be “extirpated”; it can be “outweighed”


 

 

Human Inability and Divine Assistance:

ㆍ”if [a human being] has employed his original predisposition to the good in order to become a better human being, can he hope that what is not in his capacity will be compensated for by a higher [being’s] cooperation”


 

Practical Religion

“‘It is not essential and therefore not necessary for everyone to know what God does, or has done, for his salvation,’ but it certainly is essential and is necessary for everyone to know what the human being himself has to do in order to become worthy of this assistance”


Problem of Atonement

“Greatest difficulty” of moral religion: “Whatever may have happened in [a human being’s] case with the adoption of a good attitude, and indeed, however persistently he continues in this attitude in a way of life conforming to it, he yet started from evil, and this indebtedness it will never be possible for him to erase”


 

“Original debt” as moral guilt

“[moral guilt] is not a transmissible obligation… like… a monetary debt…, but is the most personal of all obligations, namely a debt of sins, which only the punishable one can bear, not the innocent one”


Infinity of Moral Guilt: Universality

“moral evil carries with it an infinity of violations of the law and hence an infinity of guilt, not so much because

of the infinity of the supreme legislator, whose authority has thereby been violated…, but as an evil in the

attitude and the maxims as such (like universal principles as contrasted with individual transgressions)”

“not so much”: To say that our violation of God’s authority constitutes an infinite guilt is to assert “an

extravagant relation of the human being to the supreme being, of which we understand nothing”


Punishment

“moral evil carries with it this infinity of violations and of guilt”, thus “‘every human being would have to

expect an infinite punishment and expulsion from the kingdom of God”


 


Solution: “Union of Attitude” with the Son of God

“‘the exit from the corrupted into the good attitude…is in itself already a sacrifice and an entrance upon a

long series of life’s ills that the new human being takes upon himself in the attitude of the Son of God-

in other words, merely for the sake of the good–but that yet were properly deserved by a [morally]

different human being, namely the old one, as punishment”


Kingdom of God on Earth

Ethical Society: “A linking of human beings under bare laws of virtue as prescribed by [morally legislative reason]” – if these laws are public, then “ethically civil (in contrast to a juridically civil) society, or and ethical community”

Ethical community: “freedom from coercion” “Human beings ought to leave the ethical state of nature in order to become a member of an ethical community”


Pure Religious/Moral Faith:

*The only one that can establish a universal church *a bare rational faith (thus can be communicated to everyone)

*not a historical faith (based on facts, e.g. “Christ is risen”) (=church faith)

* not based on revelation, since revelation is historical and not universal

*statutory church faith (scriptures, confessions etc.)

important and inevitable “vehicle” of pure moral faith; Holy Book should be respected; but should not be subjected to pure moral and rational faith